History is like a tapestry with each colored thread contributing not only to the formation of the image but to the strength and structure of the fabric itself. Art has been used as a means of communication, self-expression, group interaction, diagnosis, and conflict resolution throughout history. Scholarship, like history, builds on the foundations laid by others. brief description of current art historical theories is offered. The in-creasing number of publications, along with the founding of the American Art Therapy Association in 1969, evolved the professional identity of the art therapist, credentials, and the role of art therapists vis-a-vis related professionals (Shoemaker et al. A Brief History of Art Therapy. There were more art therapists working in tandem with social services and rehabs for example, helping those in need by giving them something a bit more aesthetically expressive than just group therapies or simply being told to stop- especially during a time when mental health, addiction and other afflictions were still incredibly misunderstood. Finally, it is important not to forget the other early pioneers working in other parts of the country, such as Mary Huntoon at the Menninger Clinic (Wix, 2000), who made contributions to the developing profession as well. Her "art as therapy" approach emphasizes the intrinsic therapeutic potential in the art-making process and the central role the defense mechanism of sublimation plays in this experience (Kramer, 1971/1993). can use them for free to gain inspiration and new creative ideas for their writing assignments. 6 Middle Years: Other Pioneering Writers (1970s to Mid-1980s) The 1970s through the mid-1980s saw the emergence of an increasing number of publications that presented a broader range of applications and conceptual perspectives (Betensky, 1973; Landgarten, 1981; Levick, 1983; McNiff, 1981; Rhyne, 1973/ 1995; Robbins & Sibley, 1976; Rubin, 1978/1984; Wadeson, 1980), although psychoanalysis remained a dominant influence. It seems clear that this pairing is as old as human society itself, having occurred repeatedly throughout our history across place and time (Malchiodi, 1998). HUMANISTIC APPROACHES Elkins and Stovall (2000) suggest that only a small number of art therapists operate from a humanistic position (among humanistic, Gestalt, existential, and client centered; the highest response was to the first category with 2. It first began around the mid-20th Century, arising independently in English-speaking and European areas. I am indebted to the authors of four other histories that I found to … Early art therapy researchers also looked to psychology and embraced its empiri-cal approach for their research (Kwiatkowska, 1978). Major Events in the Field of Art Therapy *I encourage all of you, if you are interested in any of the happenings in this timeline, to please look further into the history of Art Therapy. Many of the more common stereotypes about art therapy (specific, assigned drawings; finger painting; and the role of the therapist in divining the "true meaning" of the drawings) can, in fact, be traced directly to this era. A review of the history of "arttherapy"indicatesthatNolanD.C. It is my hope that readers can appreciate the processes and the products that have shaped this profession. Publications by Horovitz-Darby (1994), Farrelly-Hansen (2001), and McNiff (1992) reflect an emphasis on spiritual and philosophical concepts over psychological theory. In the early part of the twentieth … In England, as in the U.S., the roots of art therapy lay mainly in art education, the practice of art, and developmental psychology. View all posts by ballan12345. In her essay "Art Therapy: Problems of Definition," Ulman (1975/1996) compares and contrasts Naumburg's "art psychotherapy" and Kramer's "art as therapy" models so clearly that it continues to be the definitive presentation of this core theoretical continuum. This "method of projection" became the conceptual foundation for a dazzling array of so-called projective drawing assessments that evolved in psychology during the 20th century (Hammer, 1958/1980). Art therapy is as old as the human society’s existence, and has just changed its form (Malchiodi, 1998) and is still changing it. Contemporary developers of art therapy assessments have abandoned ortho-dox psychoanalytic approaches in favor of methods that emphasize the expressive potential 4 of the tasks and materials (Cohen, Hammer, & Singer, 1988; Cox Frame, 1993; Gantt & Tabone, 1997; Landgarten, 1993; Silver, 1978/1989). Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Rubin (1999) also speculates that art therapists may be more comfortable with an intuitive approach than other mental health practitioners because as artists they "pride themselves on their innate sensitivities, and tend to be antiauthoritarian and anti-theoretical" (p. 180). PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND RESEARCH In addition to psychoanalysis and the rehumanization of people with mental illness, one of the strongest trends to emerge within modern psychology has been the focus on standardized methods of diagnostic assessment and research. Each of these references provided information as well as inspiration and I encourage readers to consult them for additional perspectives. Ulman's most outstanding contributions to the field have been as an editor and writer. ( Log Out /  Scholarship, like history, builds on the foundations laid by others. Change ), An Interview With Art Psychologist Sarah Greaves, An Interview With Art Psychology Student Alisa Hamilton, Speaking With The Art Therapy Outreach Centre, Watch: A Talk with Art Therapy Lecturer Manda Thompson, Watch: An Interview with Psychologist Kim Hamilton, http://www.arttherapyjournal.org/art-therapy-history.html, http://areas.fba.ul.pt/jpeneda/Briefhistoryat.pdf. 8 Moon, 1990/1995), phenomenological (Betensky, 1995), and gestalt (Rhyne, 1973/1995) approaches. Art Therapy, Interviews. Alien (1992) called for a reversal of the perceived trend in overemphasizing the clinical orientation and encouraged art therapists to refocus on their artist identity. Followinghim, severaldistinguishedscientists.forexample, MargaretNaumburg, LorenaBender,PaulSchilderand Edith Kramerin the UnitedStates, Adrian … A Brief History of Art Therapy. Art therapy is an effective form of self expression and is now considered to be a viable psychological tool in resolving inner conflicts, and particularly helps in the rehabilitation of emotionally disturbed or mentally ill patients. Are Clinical Psychologists simply expensive therapists? Although art therapy is a relatively young therapeutic discipline, its roots lie in the use of the arts in the 'moral treatment' of psychiatric patients in the late 18th century. At the end of the blog there are a few books and articles that go deeper into the history and are well worth the read. A brief history of art therapy In: Handbook of Art Therapy. Scholarship, like history, builds on the foundations laid by others. Through creative expression people learn how to become authentic, self actualised and connected with Despite this common history, there are distinctions between the approach to assessment used in psychology and that found in art therapy. I am indebted to the authors of four other histories that I found to be particularly useful in the … Silver (2000) has written extensively on assessment using a cognitive approach, and the work of Lusebrink (1990) and Nucho (1987) is based in general systems theory. Contemporary Art Therapy Theories (Mid-1980s to Present) The art therapy literature continues to grow. A BRIEF HISTORY OF EXPRESSIVE THERAPIES McNiff (1981, 1992) proposes that the arts have consistently been part of life as well as healing throughout the … Work by Edwards and Wallace (both cited in Rubin, 1987/ 2001), McConeghey (1986), and Schaverian (1992) all reflect this emphasis. Classical Period (1940s to 1970s) In the middle of the 20th century a largely independent assortment of individuals began to use the term "art therapy" in their writings to describe their work with clients. Art therapy as a profession began in the mid-20th century, arising independently in English-speaking and European countries. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ART THERAPY LITERATURE The development of any discipline is best traced through the evolution of that field's literature. 1%), Jungian (5. The clients' art productions were viewed as symbolic communication of unconscious material in a direct, uncensored, and concrete form that Naumburg (1950/1973) argued would aid in the resolution of the transference. Benjamin McCrimmon. Through … Abstract Clinical Psychology is a combination of science, knowledge and theories which together formulate a scientific approach which enables a clinical psychologist to ask. Jung was certain of its relevance and importance as a form of therapy, to those who need to express how they’re truly feeling within. Kramer, Rubin, Ulman, and Wilson (all cited in Rubin, 1987/2001) and Levick (1983) all use psychoanalytic language and concepts. Art Therapy is a well-developed profession in the US and the UK and is an approach that is used to help people of all ages. https://phdessay.com/brief-history-of-art-therapy/. Concordia University Chicago. While Naumburg borrowed heavily from the techniques of psychoanalytic practice, Kramer took a different approach by adapting concepts from Freud's personality theory to explain the art therapy process. Art itself has always been seen as a way of releasing inner thoughts and expressing oneself by putting pencil to paper or brush to canvas. She founded The Bulletin of Art Therapy in 1961 (The American Journal of Art Therapy after 1970) when no other publication of its kind existed (Junge &c Asawa, 1994). TRENDS IN 19TH- AND 20TH-CENTURY PSYCHOLOGY For much of human history mental illness was regarded with fear and misunderstanding as a manifestation of either divine or demonic forces. Medically reviewed by Scientific Advisory Board — … In addition, art therapists tend to use more varied and expressive materials and to deemphasize formalized verbal directives and stress the role of clients as interpreters of their own work. PSYCHODYNAMIC APPROACHES The ideas of Freud and his followers (see Chapter 2, this volume) have been part of art therapy since the earliest days, although contemporary writers are more likely to apply terms such as "transference" and "the defense mechanisms" to articulate a position rather than employ classic psychoanalytic techniques ith any degree of orthodoxy. The establishment of art therapy as a unique and publicly accepted ther… Therapeutic rituals using the visual arts can be found in ancient cultures from hundreds of years ago, such as Navajo sand paintings and African sculpture. Like Kramer, she had fled Europe at the time of World War II adding to the list of emigre thinkers who influenced the development of mental health disciplines in the United States. 6% suggests that much contemporary practice is still informed by generally psychodynamic concepts (Elkins & Stovall, 7 2000). Interpretations of the newer developments in psychoanalysis such as the theories of Klein (Weir, 1990), self psychology (Lachman-Chapin) and object relations theory (Robbins) can also be found in the art therapy literature (both cited in Rubin, 1987/2001). Brief History of Art Therapy. Writings by Lachman-Chapin (1983); Knill (1995), who espouses an expressive arts therapies approach (Chapter 8, this volume); and C. Moon (2002) reflect this studio approach to theory and practice. There is pleasure in admiring the work that has already been done and excitement in the weaving. Through her early work in the innovative Walden School, which she founded (along with her sister Florence Cane), and later in psychi-atric settings she developed her ideas and, in the 1940s, began to write about what was to become known as art therapy (Detre et al. It seems strange it took so long for the idea of ‘art therapy’ to become a noticed subsection of psychotherapy, the term only being coined in 1942 by artist Adrian Hill in England, but the practice also being used in the 1940’s around the same time in America by Margaret Naumburg who is also known as the ‘mother of art therapy’. Reformers such as Rush in the United States and Pinel in France made great strides in creating a more humane environment for their patients. Relational (Dalley, Rifkind, & Terry, 1993) and feminist (Hogan, 1997) approaches question the hierarchy in the client/therapist relationship and empower-ing the client and have also shaped contemporary art therapy practice. LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES Perhaps because they are perceived to be mechanistic, those psychological theories that emphasize learning tend to be less popular with art therapists. Other models that fall under the humanistic heading include existential (B. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy. Hire a subject expert to help you with Brief History of Art Therapy. Her gift as a writer was to precisely synthesize and articulate complex ideas. (Picture Credit, once again, to Sarah Greaves) As far as art therapy goes as a form of therapy, it has … Continue reading A Brief History of Art Therapy. There is a rich, dense history to the whole practice of art therapy that goes deeper than this, but I wanted to present a brief and condensed history, that is simple and easy to grasp for those who are interested and want to find out more about the profession. Readers interested in art therapy, had however, sometimes classes force me to go outside my! 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