[10] At 14 kn (26 km/h; 16 mph), the ships' range increased slightly to 4,700 nmi (8,700 km; 5,400 mi). Launch of the Battleship RN Impero in November 1939. Littorio, Garibaldi Class, Ships - Barrel Set RB Model 1:350 350L29 + The guns fired a 885 kg (1,951 lb) armor-piercing (AP) shell at a muzzle velocity of 870 meters per second (2,854 ft/s). During the engagement, she badly damaged the destroyers Havock and Kingston. The Impero never sa… [35] On the night of 8–9 January 1941, the Royal Air Force attacked Naples with heavy bombers, but failed to hit the ship. Able to elevate to 32 degrees, they fired a 29.3 kg (65 lb) semi-fixed round out to an effective range of 5,000 m (16,400 ft). Regia Marina - Italian Battleships Littorio Class - Tribute [46] Shortly thereafter, on 13 December, Littorio escorted another convoy to North Africa. Italia, Vittorio Veneto, and Impero were broken up for scrap between 1952 and 1954. She was delivered to the Italian Navy in Trieste, still incomplete, some six months later on 28 April 1940. [52], In the early 1930s, the Soviet Navy began a naval construction program, and sought advice from foreign shipbuilders for a new class of battleships. The last two battleships were the first of the true treaty battleships, members of the Littorio class. Nov 15, 2019 - Explore Sam Stewart's board "Italian battleships" on Pinterest. [13], Littorio was laid down at the Ansaldo shipyards in Genoa on 28 October 1934 to commemorate the Fascist Party's March on Rome in 1922. Nevertheless, Italia and Vittorio Veneto reached Malta and were interned. By October of 1934, Italy had not constructed any new battleships in decades. [30][14], The weather deck over the citadel consists of 36 mm (1.4 in) homogeneous armor over 9 mm (0.35 in) plating;[30] the main armor deck varied depending on the space it was protecting. The uppermost level was protected by 255 mm (10.0 in) on the front and sides and 175 mm (6.9 in) rear, all mounted on 25 mm (0.98 in) plating. [20][Note 2] Their ammunition load was 495 AP shells and 171 SAP shells, with 4,320 propellant charges (666 rounds total, or 74 rounds per gun split 55 AP & 19 SAP). The joints failed even in cases of non-contact explosions; this prevented the hollow drum from collapsing as designed and resulted in massive flooding. [13] The 381 mm guns had a maximum elevation of 35 degrees, which allowed them to engage targets out to 42,260 m (46,220 yd). She was named after the Lictor ("Littorio" in Italian), in ancient times the bearer of the Roman fasces, which was adopted as the symbol of Italian Fascism. Littorio and her sister Vittorio Veneto were built in response to the French battleships Dunkerque and Strasbourg. They had been laid down in 1934, and were completed in 1940, just as Italy entered the war. The belt consists of a 70 mm (2.8 in) homogeneous armor outer plate and the 280 mm (11 in) cemented armor belt placed 250 mm (9.8 in) behind the outer plate; the 250 mm gap was filed with a cement foam called "Cellulite" to keep the water out of the gap and assist in de-capping armor piercing shells. [31], All four ships incorporated a unique underwater protection system named after its designer, Umberto Pugliese. The largest and most powerful warships ever built in Italy, the battleships of the Littorio class, were the first “35,000 tonners” to come under the provisions of the Washington Treaty. The Littorio class, also known as the Vittorio Veneto class,[Note 1] was a class of battleship of the Regia Marina, the Italian navy. [34], The keels for Vittorio Veneto and Littorio were laid on the same day, 28 October 1934, at the Cantieri Riuniti dell'Adriatico shipyard in Trieste and the Ansaldo shipyard in Genoa, respectively. [15] The ships carried 4,140 t (4,070 long tons; 4,560 short tons) of fuel oil, which enabled a maximum range of 4,580 nautical miles (8,480 km; 5,270 mi) at a cruising speed of 16 kn (30 km/h; 18 mph). [9] Ultimately, nine 381 mm guns in three triple turrets were adopted as the primary battery for the ships, on a displacement in excess of 40,000 long tons (41,000 t),[10] despite the fact that this violated the established naval treaties. All info is based off of Littorio Wikipedia. The bomb detonated the magazines, causing a massive explosion that destroyed the ship with heavy casualties. During this action, which saw the destruction of her sister Roma, Italia herself was hit by a Fritz X radio-controlled bomb, causing light damage to her bow. [19] A similar outcome resulted from the movement against British Operation "MB.5" on 29 September - 1 October.[20]. Impero was the fourth Littorio-class battleship, named after the Italian word for “empire”, recalling not the Roman Empire dear to Mussolini but the newly conquered Italian Empire in East Africa after the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. [40], Repairs to Vittorio Veneto were completed in time for her to join Littorio on attacks on the convoys Vigorous and Harpoon, which had departed Alexandria and Gibraltar to reinforce Malta simultaneously in mid-June. The barbettes were 350 mm (14 in) above the upper deck and 280 mm (11 in) below deck. During the battle, Littorio struck and seriously damaged the destroyers HMS Havock and Kingston with her main guns, nearly destroying Kingston, which managed to limp back to Malta the following morning. The Italians refused to disclose the details of the Pugliese system. [39] During the attack on Taranto on 12 November 1940, Littorio was hit twice by torpedoes, suffering serious damage. [25] Four 120 mm (4.7 in) L/40 guns were mounted on each ship in order to fire illumination rounds. Over the machinery spaces, the main armor deck was 100 mm (3.9 in) on 12 mm plating inboard and 90 mm (3.5 in) on 12 mm plating outboard. [17], Littorio's design speed was 29 kn (33 mph; 54 km/h) at full-load. She briefly engaged British cruisers with her rear main battery turret, without scoring any hits. 41. To accomplish this, they supplemented the 280mm (11″) main armoured belt with decapping plates mounted over it. The London Naval Treaty of 1930 extended the building holiday to 1936, though Italy and France retained the right to build 70,000 tons of new capital ships. [47] Before returning to port, a British Wellington bomber torpedoed the ship. The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 allotted Italy an additional 70,000 long tons (71,000 t) of total capital ship tonnage, which could be used in 1927–1929, while other powers were observing the "holiday" in battleship construction prescribed by the treaty. The standard crew for Roma and Impero was increased by 100 enlisted men. 1/700 Italian Battleship Littorio 1941. by Pit-Road . The Vittorio Veneto was the second ship of the Littorio-class battleships from the Regia Marina. All four ships had a draft of 9.6 m (31 ft) and a beam of 32.82 m (107.7 ft). [27] The 37 mm and 20 mm guns were designed for close-range defense and had effective ranges of 4,000 m (13,100 ft) and 2,500 m (8,200 ft), respectively. More about the Battleship Littorio-class battleship. Two hit Roma; one passed through the ship and exploded under her keel, and the second hit near the forward magazines. The Littorio class, also known as the Vittorio Veneto class, was a class of battleship of the Regia Marina, the Italian navy.The class was composed of four ships: Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Roma, and Impero.Only the first three ships of the class were completed, however. The Italian Navy pushed to modernize and enlarge the existing shipyards in Spain, so that they could handle a vessel as large as the Littorio class. The ship’s main armament consisted of 3 triple turrets with 381 mm guns, 2 turrets superfiring at the front and 1 at the rear. [7] This was ultimately abandoned in favor of a 35,000 ton design to be armed with 406 mm guns. The Italian Navy wanted to protect the Littorio class battleships from 380mm (15″) shells , the most common calibre they would likely face in the Mediterranean. After which she was sent to hunt the British and Free French Mediterranean fleets. During the return to port, Littorio was struck by a torpedo dropped by a British Wellington bomber, but the ship was able to return to port for repairs. [16] The Re.2000 fighter was a wheeled aircraft and had to land on an airfield. The British squadron was in fact Force H, steaming to bombard Genoa. The torpedo struck her starboard bow, though she returned to port. On 17 December, she took part in the First Battle of Sirte. The Italians did not disclose the specifications of the Pugliese system and instead used a multiple-torpedo bulkhead system. The Battleship Littorio-class-page contains all related products, articles, books, walkarounds and plastic scale modeling projects dedicated to this ship. [14], Littorio and Vittorio Veneto had a standard crew of 80 officers and 1,750 enlisted men; while serving as a flagship, the crew was increased by a command staff of between 11 and 31 additional officers. On 26 September, the two battleships attempted to intercept the Operation Halberd convoy, but they broke off the operation without attacking the convoy. [24] They had a rate of fire of slightly better than four rounds a minute. The ability of the drum to absorb explosive shock correspondingly fell in relation to its size. [2] They opted for this design because this allowed three ships under the 70,000-ton limit. Italian Battleship Littorio is a piece of digital artwork by Carlo Cestra which was uploaded on April 8th, 2018. Littorio was the lead ship of her class of battleship and she served in the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) during World War II. back to all. On 3 January 1942, Littorio was again tasked with convoy escort, in support of M 43. The convoy was transporting supplies to the island of Malta. This formed a void which housed an empty drum 3,800 mm (150 in) wide with 6 mm (0.24 in) thick walls; the rest of the void was filled with liquid. [40] Vittorio Veneto, however, emerged from the attack undamaged. Bagnasco, Erminio; de Toro, Augusto (2010). Littorio and Vittorio Veneto were 224.05 meters (735.1 ft) long between perpendiculars and 237.76 m (780.1 ft) long overall, while Roma and Impero were 240.68 m (789.6 ft) long overall. [13] As built, the ships were fitted with bulbous bows to increase their speed, but they were found to cause serious vibration, which forced a modification to the bow. This is funny to me because in a separate engagement, one of the Littorio's was described as straddling a destroyer in 3 salvo's which is very good. Littorio, Italian, Battleship, 1940-43 Commissioned in May 1940, the Italian battleship Littorio was the lead ship of her class and was renamed Italia in July 1943 following the fall of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini's government. [19], The ships' secondary battery consisted of twelve 152 mm (6.0 in) L/55 Ansaldo Model 1934 guns in four triple turrets. During this attack Italia was hit on the starboard side underneath her fore main turrets, while its sister ship, the Italian flagship Roma, was sunk after it was struck by two bombs. [14] The hull space above the citadel was an armored casemate with 70 mm (2.8 in) plating. Garzke, William H.; Dulin, Robert O. Significant flooding caused the ship to settle by the bow. During the steaming to the Allied port of Malta, the Italian fleet was attacked by German Dornier Do 217s armed with Fritz X radio-controlled bombs. Allocated to the United States, she was stricken on 1 June 1948 and scrapped in La Spezia. Littorio was the second of the class to be launched, about a month after the Vittorio Veneto, and was commissioned 6 May 1940, eight days after her sister. She was renamed Italia after Benito Mussolini's regime collapsed. A 26,500 long tons (26,900 t) design was then prepared, which mounted eight 343 mm guns in twin turrets. The largest class of Italian warships, she was basically an upscaled Littorio when it came to hull design. Both countries were put under significant pressure from the other signatories to use their allotted tonnage to build smaller battleships with reduced caliber main batteries. [42], Littorio and Vittorio Veneto had both returned to active duty by August 1941, and on the 22nd the two ships sortied to attack a convoy. On 22 March, she participated in the Second Battle of Sirte, as the flagship for an Italian force attempting to destroy a British convoy bound for Malta. [31][33], The conning tower was in the same style as the others designed by General Pugliese. [32] The 90-mm heavy anti-aircraft mounts were protected by 12–40 mm (0.47–1.57 in) shield and barbette plating. 2 main battery turret and two on either side of the rear turret. On 6 June 1946, Vittorio Veneto steamed to Augusta in Sicily, where, under the Treaty of Peace with Italy, she was allocated to Britain. The first two ships, Littorio and Vittorio Veneto, were operational by the early months of Italy's participation in World War II. [11] Nevertheless, by the time these ships entered service, the international arms control system had fallen apart and the major naval powers had invoked the "escalator clause" that allowed for ships up to 45,000 long tons (46,000 t) displacement. They remained at the Great Bitter Lake in the Suez Canal for the rest of the war. There, she replaced Littorio as the fleet flagship. The two ships were repeatedly torpedoed throughout their careers: Littorio was hit by a torpedo during the attack on Taranto in November 1940 and again in June 1942; Vittorio Veneto was torpedoed during the Battle of Cape Matapan in March 1941 and while escorting a convoy to North Africa in September 1941. The British follow-up convoy was much better defended and when the Italian fleet sortied on the 27 November to intercept it they were met with a covering force including two British battleships an… [14] This was due to two major defects in the design. [15], The ships' propulsion system consisted of four Belluzzo geared steam turbines powered by eight oil-fired Yarrow boilers. She was named after the Lictor ("Littorio" in Italian), in ancient times the bearer of the Roman fasces, which was adopted as the symbol of Italian Fascism. [18] The 824.3 kg (1,817 lb) semi-armor piercing shells formed the secondary ammunition of the 381mm/50, which had a 29.51 kg (65.1 lb) bursting charge. They were developed in response to the French Dunkerque-classbattleships, and were armed with 381-milli… However, with rising tensions in Europe, the Regia Marina ordered the Littorio Class of battleships. [36] Impero was laid down at the Ansaldo shipyard on 14 May 1938. Overall, they served predominately in the Mediterranean, making rare Atlantic sorties. The guns' rate of fire was one shot every 45 seconds. Shortly after being commissioned into the Regia Marina, the Littorio was badly damaged by the British in the raid on Taranto in November 1940. In October 1947, the ship was raised and towed to Venice, where she was broken up. [16], During service, Littorio's actual range was calculated to be:[8], On 31 August - 2 September 1940, Littorio sortied as part of a large Italian force to oppose British naval forces taking part in Operations Hats and "MB.3", but contact was not made and no action occurred. Littorio was the victim of several Allied aerial attacks throughout her career, the worst of which was the British air raid on the Italian fleet at Taranto on 11 November 1940, which put her out of action until the following March. Built between 1934 and 1942, they were the most modern battleships used by Italy during World War II. 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