Abrasiveness of the flooring surface may be too little, which makes floors slippery and leads to injuries, or too much, which can wear down the claws and promote heel overgrowth. Lameness can account for significant losses in growing pigs either because the pigs are unfit to travel on welfare grounds and require to be destroyed, or they are part or totally condemned at slaughter. Dexamethasone has been recommended in pigs with streptococcosis and is labeled for glucocorticoid therapy in pigs. The feet can be examined most easily when the pig is lying laterally recumbent or lifted (manually for small pigs or using a mechanical chute for sows). Cracked hoof – Severe cracks take a very long time-if ever-to heal because new solid hoof must grow down from the top. Due to their abnormally large weight, many domestic pigs suffer from stiff and sore joints, and they can easily injure their legs, feet, and hooves. On the crumbs, swelling spots of red color may occur, and after 3-4 days this leads to the formation of cellulitis. Dewclaw injuries have a pretty good prognosis for recovery because the dewclaw does not contact the ground except when sows get up and lie down so the sow should be able to bear nearly full weight on the leg. Morbidity information should include treatments and the responses observed. If more restraint is needed, small pigs can be lifted or manually held for examination. Pigs kept in very large group sizes have fewer aggressive interactions than pigs housed in small groups. They are extremely painful and sows with hoof cracks are reluctant to use the foot at all. Pigs carry a large amount of weight on small feet, and their anatomy lends itself to the development of arthritis. When the hooves are excessively long they interfere with normal movement and produce a vicious cycle where the sow doesn’t move much because it is hard to balance on long toes and the toes get longer because the sow isn’t using them. Personnel working with the pigs must also be evaluated as possible contributors to lameness problems. Experiences with a series of lameness problems collectively referred to as metabolic bone disease—variably concerning problems in calcium, phosphorus, and/or vitamin D metabolism—have put more focus on the need to test feed constituents more thoroughly before inclusion in the diets, to test mixed feed for adherence to the formulation, and to monitor pigs more closely for serum vitamin D levels and bone densities so problems can be detected earlier. The sourcing and mixing of discrete pig populations can influence whether infectious diseases are maintained as endemic within the population or can become epidemic outbreaks as pigs become susceptible over time with the loss of maternal immunity and have commingling exposure. Which limb is most likely affected in this horse? If a suitable vaccine is not commercially available, an autogenous product can be created for some pathogens for use in an individual herd and, provided it is cost-effective, can be used to prevent regular outbreaks of disease. During the examination, the horse raises his head as he places weight on his left forelimb and drops it when placing weight on the right forelimb. Horse nippers were the culprit to a pig requiring surgery last year after a chunk of hoof flew into the pig’s mouth. Condemnations at slaughter can be another way to secure objective data on morbidity, when condemnations for limb abnormalities or fractures have a direct bearing on lameness and for polyserositis or downer pigs, which have an indirect bearing on lameness. Whenever feasible, introduction of a vaccination protocol to protect populations of pigs against a particular infectious agent is desirable. The fusiformis bacteria cause the infection and can enter the pig’s body through the sole of the foot, a split hoof, or through cracks at the sole-hoof junction. Cause: Foot injuries are primarily a result of poor flooring. Be sure to keep this in mind as you cut back the pig's nails. All these products are administered by IM injection, so treatment of large numbers of pigs is time consuming and potentially costly. Distinguishing between presence and significance of a disease-causing agent becomes more difficult, but a more precise understanding of exposure and transmission of agents should help develop more effective control strategies. Fracture of the head of the femur (epiphysiolysis capitis femoris), a common cause of downer sows, is difficult to diagnose antemortem. The pen evaluation is intended to identify the lame pigs. These changes can alter the epidemiology of diseases, posing both a challenge and an opportunity to intervene more effectively to reduce lameness. An ideal dew claw horn should be approximately 20 mm long. Infectious agents sensitive to a drug in vitro may not be sensitive in vivo, so clinical experience on the farm is essential. Traumatic injury can obviously cause lameness in pigs at any age, but some types of lameness arising from infectious or physiologic causes can have a more limited age range or set of circumstances under which lameness develops. 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